REACHING THE MOST MARGINALISED: A HUMAN RIGHT TO INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

These words from SDG advocate Eddie Ndopu, shared during the ‘Disability Inclusive Education Forum – Reaching the most marginalised’ held on 4th December, 2020, ring true this Human Rights Day.

Yasmine, a refugee girl with disabilities living in Bangladesh, is receiving learning support through ECW-funded programmes. Photo UNICEF.

“We have an attitudinal problem and a failure of the public policy imagination to account for the full experiences that children with disabilities in vulnerable contexts embody…This is not a question of misfortune, it is a question of injustice…institutional and structural exclusion and oppression. If we are to really reach those furthest behind, we require a moment of reckoning that society has let down children with disabilities. And we have to act to change that …now.”

These words from SDG advocate Eddie Ndopu, shared during the ‘Disability Inclusive Education Forum – Reaching the most marginalised’ held on 4th December, 2020, ring true this Human Rights Day. Thirty-year-old Eddie, who is in discussions with aerospace companies to be the first person with a disability in space, reminded attendees of the Forum that human rights apply to all and that denying access to education and opportunity is an injustice. Particularly, for the billions of young people who have been forced out of schools due to COVID-19 and those already excluded like refugees, displaced students and children and young people with disabilities. The Forum, held the day after the United Nations annual International Day for Persons with Disabilities, issued a timely reminder that, in an unpredictable 2020, children and young people already facing the greatest barriers and highest risk of exclusion are being left further behind, without the opportunity to reach their full potential.

Hosted by the Government of Norway, Education Cannot Wait, the Global Campaign for Education, Special Olympics, International Disability Alliance (IDA), International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) and Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies, the Forum’s message was not lost on the large audience of self-advocates, organisations of persons with disabilities multilateral, UN and NGO organizations and government representatives who tuned in. Speakers included Norwegian Minister Dag Ulstein, Ecuador’s Vice Minister for Education, Isabela Maldonado, chair of the African Disability Forum and board member of the International Disability Alliance, Mr Alzouma Maiga Idriss; Alejandra Perez, Special Olympics Venezuela athlete; self-advocate Salma Eltabbakh from Egypt and more, echoed that the basic right to education, especially for children and young people with a disability, has been impacted as resources become more strained and they become harder to reach.

The Forum sought to encourage local, national, and international decision makers to ensure that inclusive education for learners with disabilities – particularly in humanitarian emergencies – should be a key focus of education systems, delivery and planning as well as COVID-19 response and recovery efforts. These children and young people, along their families and communities are in need of more support than ever, and countries must step up to the commitments made in Sustainable Development Goal 4 and in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities when it comes to making quality, equitable and inclusive education a reality for learners with disabilities. This resonates in a message from the IDA, which strongly believes that “building a truly inclusive education system is the only way to achieve SDG 4 for all children including those with disabilities.”

Ensuring a positive outlook, several co-hosts and speakers shared indications and descriptions of progress on this agenda. For example, Graham Lang, Chief of Education for Education Cannot Wait (ECW), the global fund for education in emergencies shared with the audience that, “ECW will increasingly focus efforts to ensure that our investments support the design and implementation of inclusive investments to support children and adolescents with disabilities with inclusive education opportunities, which is their right.” Eight distinct breakout sessions following the Forum were attended by a network of advocates, organizations of persons with disabilities, service delivery groups and policy experts also enabled attendees to understand more about what can be done, and how, to support learners with disabilities in emergency settings. From responsive planning, to better service delivery, to overcoming barriers including the impact of COVID-19, speakers like Sk Golam Mohiuddin, an Inclusive Education Facilitator from Bangladesh,  and William Obella, a Humanity and Inclusion project officer on behalf of the IDDC, shared a common dedication to thinking ‘outside the box’ and shared firsthand accounts of innovative service delivery and the challenges of education during COVID 19. For instance inclusive digital, radio and TV learning services and private tutors, which Vice Minister Maldonado shared have been rolled out in Ecuador.

Highlights of the Forum included the large number of passionate, determined and inspiring self-advocates and students with disabilities, who advocated for their basic right for an opportunity to reach their fullest potential and be counted.  Many urged organisations for people with disabilities, global education in emergency networks, governments and donors to ensure their needs are fully integrated and not an add-on or afterthought within education settings.  Moderator, Laila Atshan from Palestine, shared that, “separation is illusion” and that, as a blind child, she was only expected to reach 6th grade at best, but exceeded expectations by attending Harvard. Egyptian advocate Salma Eltabakkh talked about how to ensure all students “respect the culture of difference” in integrated schools, as she shared her own highschool experience, absent of inclusive assistance, ostracized by peers who didn’t understand Down syndrome and disregarded by potential employers before she discovered a career in supporting students with disabilities. Special Olympian Alejandra Perez gave advice for a better future through, “the union between people with disabilities and people without disabilities.” She said, “We in Special Olympics live this… Sport is a refuge. I speak for all of our athletes, not just myself. Through sport…we can learn more about inclusion.”

The co-hosting organisations are now working together to release recommendations that build on the outcomes of the Forum. These organizations will work with the Government of Norway and other organisers of the 2022 Global Disability Summit (GDS), following the UK’s hosting in 2018, to ensure that inclusive education – particularly in emergencies, is high on the agenda for action. The Government of Norway welcomed last week’s Forum and its outcomes and the Minister for Development, Dag Ulstein shared his vision for the Forum and the 2022 GDS: “Norway is committed to the inclusion agenda and is delighted to host the 2022 Global Disability Summit, because we want to ensure that political focus is not veering away from commitments made for the improvement of the human rights situation for persons with disabilities. We believe inclusive education is a vital part of achieving SDG4 and ensuring that no one is left behind, because everyone has a right to education, including children and youth living with disabilities. If they are not provided access to education, we will not achieve SDG4. That is why we co-hosted this Forum. We hope to work with the education community, civil society and disabled persons organisations and advocates over the coming months to plan collaboratively how inclusive education particularly in emergencies, will feature and be prioritized in the Summit.”

To the Forum’s co-hosts, it is unacceptable that 60 years since the adoption of the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education, children and young people with disabilites are still subject to systemic disrimination in many education systems around the world, moreso in emergency contexts. With this in mind, a sense of impatience, frustration and urgency to act became clear.  Nafisa Baboo, Global Campaign for Education board member reinforced that, “donors must hardwire disability in all education in emergency programmes, and make sure funding sufficiently provides for better identification, inclusive education teacher training, and the needed accommodations and supports for children with disabilities.” Echoing Eddie Ndopu, Canadian MP Mike Lake, joined by his son Jaden Lake, who is a Special Olympian with autism and an accomplished library assistant, shared that he was “tired of having the same conversations.” And that, “the world is better off when children with disabilities are included, in school, and reaching their full potential.”  The hope of all the organisations listed below, as we recover from a truly global pandemic and progress towards the 2022 Global Disability Summit, is that we don’t lose the momentum and collective will to achieve the human rights for every child through inclusive education.

The rich discussion at the forum led to the following, non-exhaustive, initial recommendations:

Community recommendations

  • Children, young people, their parents, families and caregivers, organisations of persons with disabilities and wider community should be meaningfully engaged in policy dialogues, planning and delivery from the outset. This is in line with Article 4.3 of the UNCRPD and other globally recognised standards such as the INEE Minimum Standards for Education: Preparedness, Response and Recovery – to ensure inclusive education systems.

Policy recommendations

  • All students with disabilities have a right to quality, equitable and inclusive education and should be taught together with students with and without disabilities in inclusive and accessible schools and classrooms.
  • A change in culture, policy and practice is needed, with dedicated efforts to:
    • identify children with disabilities who are out-of-school; remove barriers to inclusive education, transition from special/segregated settings towards truly inclusive learning settings and strengthen education systems to reach all learners.
  • Universal Design for Learning needs to be adopted in order to make education truly inclusive of all, including learners with disabilities. Curriculum reforms and support to adopt pedagogy and provide teacher training all foster Universal Design for Learning.
  • Diverse languages, including sign language and tactile sign language, and modes of communication need to be used throughout the system with teachers who are fluent.

Financing recommendations

  • Significant investments are needed to ensure accessibility of all classrooms, education facilities and teaching materials and access to assistive products and technology.
  • National and international governments and donors should prioritise increased and international investments in catalyzing system level changes to make education inclusive on one hand, and also invest in specific disability-related support services that are essential for learners with disabilities, on the other.

Thank you to the International Disability Alliance, International Disability and Development Consortium, Interagency Network for Education in Emergencies, Education Cannot Wait, The Government of Norway, Special Olympics, The Global Campaign for Education, Light for the World and the Jesuit Refugee Service for their support for this Press Release.

To find out more and get more involved:

OUT OF THE SHADOWS AND INTO THE LIGHT

‘MORE THAN 1 BILLION PEOPLE IN THE WORLD LIVE WITH SOME FORM OF DISABILITY. IN MANY SOCIETIES, PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES OFTEN END UP DISCONNECTED, LIVING IN ISOLATION AND FACING DISCRIMINATION.’ – MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY GENERAL ON THE INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES.

By Aida Orgocka

“If you are a girl, 11 years old, and disabled, you may not as well exist.” It was a blunt comment to my remark that I did not see any disabled children in the schools I visited last week in two refugee settlements in the West Nile region in Uganda.

Worldwide, one in every 10 children has a disability – and the proportion is even higher in areas with armed conflict, protracted crises or disasters. But, unless we ask about them, they are invisible. Cut off from the world, cut off from their education, play and laughter. Children with disabilities are perhaps the least serviced community when it comes to providing inclusive, accessible, reliable and safe access to education for children living in crisis.

Education Cannot Wait is investing to reverse this phenomenon. Making a difference in the lives of disabled children living in crises can be challenging, but it should not stop us from doing it. As part of a global movement to bring education to all vulnerable children living in crises, we are investing in solutions to make a positive change and pull disabled children out of the shadows and into the light.

DISABILITY IS REVERSIBLE

Impairment can be a lot of irreversible issues, congenital, an illness, an injury. But disability is about inaccessible environment, discrimination, poverty, lack of opportunities, all human made. And it can be reversible.

Having said that, the reality of living in a refugee or displacement camp or in the midst of crisis can be harsh. Most disabled children in crises settings live in tough places – rough terrain, no electricity, distance to travel to access water, few ill-equipped schools, limited access to health services. Even healthy children struggle to survive, to access education, to find toys to play with, and to find hope. For girls, it’s even harder. Now imagine being a girl in a wheelchair?

For this girl – and the millions more like her – accessing education is extremely difficult.

Let’s start with the basics. If you are in a wheelchair and live in a displacement camp in Uganda way out in the countryside by the border with South Sudan, just getting to school is a challenge. Most wheelchairs and accessibility devices are ill-equipped for this rough terrain. And wheelchair ramps? Forget about it.

Let’s say, however, that your parents overcome the stigma of having a disabled child and figure out a way to get you to class. From there, you risk facing the brutality, bullying and ridicule of your peers – children can be pretty tough on their peers sometimes, especially if there are no measures in place to address discriminatory attitudes and behaviors.

In one of the refugee settlements in Uganda, some teenage refugee boys from South Sudan suggested we could get them bicycles and they would ride children with disabilities to school. Sure, I thought, great idea.

But they added that they would rather these kids be set apart in different classrooms. They felt that in these already congested classrooms with more than 50 students vying for the teacher’s attention, they would be left out.

This is a real challenge. In fact, teachers in these settings are undertrained, underpaid and ill-equipped to deal with students with disabilities. Sometimes their own knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards disability are also part of the problem.

We have a problem of stigma, a problem of access, a problem of capacity. So how do we deal with it?

A WHOLE-OF-SYSTEM APPROACH

This is what people call a wicked problem. And the only solution to wicked problems are courageous solutions, not one-off stints. That means a whole-of-system approach.

We can’t just give children souped-up wheelchairs. We have to create behavior change across society, and we have to engage with all the actors across the human-development-education-emergency-response field to create integrated solutions.

Our friends at UNICEF have been working on this problem for a long time. Some solutions are presented in their guidance on Children Living with Disabilities in Humanitarian Crisis.

In order to do this, Education Cannot Wait is investing in programs that mainstream gender equality and equity including disability. We collectively work to make inclusive quality education a reality for disabled children. They cannot be an after-thought.

Inclusive education is a government policy in Uganda. As one colleague remarked deliberate efforts for inclusive education come with a cost but this should not deter us.

In the refugee settlements in Uganda it starts with understanding and creating a culture of inclusion. To push this, teachers (our frontline ambassadors for engagement with children with disabilities living in crisis), need to be sensitized to the value of inclusion, need to be trained on dealing with children with special needs and need to be given the tools they need to address the issue.

Yes, engaging with parents and communities is important, but let’s not forget to make young girls and boys key agents of change. What a wonderful world it would be to see a child biking with a friend with a disability to school and sharing notes as they prepare for school exams!

And how about inviting organizations that provide disability services to sit in the same aid coordination fora with those who specialize in providing education services? They would have so much to say about what inclusive education is and how to help children with disabilities live a normal life.

No matter how we look at the problem, as we connect to reach the Sustainable Development Goals for inclusion, universal access to education and peace, it is certainly clear that we need to take immediate action. One-off responses are no longer enough, we need a collective response to ensure that being in a wheelchair, developmentally challenged or having special needs is not a sealed fate. No girl or boy living in crises should be left behind.

About the Author

Aida Orgocka is the Gender Advisor for Education Cannot Wait.

Photo: Geofrey Arum, Save the Children.
Children in Uganda. Photo: Geofrey Arum, Save the Children.